Sunday, November 29, 2009

Nonliving Vaccines

Nonliving Vaccines and Their Approximate times of availability
Inactivated whole organisms:
  • 1896 – Typhoid
  • 1896 – Cholera
  • 1897 – Plague
  • 1986 – Whole cell pertussis
  • 1938 – Influenza
  • 1955 – IPV
  • 1955 – Hepatitis A

Use of Extracts and Subunits:

  • 1944 – Japanese encephalitis
  • 1970s – Influenza
  • 1960 – Anthrax
  • 1976 – Cell culture raties

Use of toxoids:

  • 1923 – Diphtheria
  • 1929 – Tetanus

Newer Technology for vaccine development
The strategy to use is vary, several strategy on the development of vaccines that usually use are as follows:

  • Recombinant protein production
  • Live recombinants carrying genes from related agents
  • Recombinant vectors recombining genes from pathogens
  • Alpha virus replicons
  • Replication defective particles
  • Naked DNA plasmids
  • Prime boost using DNA and/or vectors
  • Reverse vaccinology
  • Microarrays for expression of virulence genes
  • Synthetic peptides
  • Synthetic capsular polysaccharides
  • Reverse genetics

The example of pathogens targeted:
Hepatitis BSAg, pertussis toxin, lyme outer surface protein A, CMV gB
Dengue genes in yellow fever 17D, parainfluenza 1+2 genes in parainfluenza 3, M.tuberculosis genes in BCG HIV, CMV
HIV, Hemorrchagic Fever
HPV, SARS
HIV and many others
HIV, malaria, tuberculosis
Menigococcus B for menigitis
Mainly Bacteria
Cancer, CTL vaccines
Hib
Influenze vaccine, parainfluenza, RSV

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